Except as otherwise provided in this section, gross income  of an employee does not include employer-provided coverage under an accident or health plan.
(b)Contributions to Archer MSAs
In the case of an employee who is an eligible individual, amounts contributed by such employee’s employer to any Archer MSA of such employee shall be treated as employer-provided coverage for medical expenses under an accident or health plan to the extent such amounts do not exceed the limitation under section 220(b)(1) (determined without regard to this subsection) which is applicable to such employee for such taxable year.
(2)No constructive receipt
No amount shall be included in the gross income of any employee solely because the employee may choose between the contributions referred to in paragraph (1) and employer contributions to another health plan of the employer.
(3)Special rule for deduction of employer contributions
Any employer contribution to an Archer MSA, if otherwise allowable as a deduction under this chapter, shall be allowed only for the taxable year in which paid.
(4)Employer MSA contributions required to be shown on return
Every individual required to file a return under section 6012 for the taxable year shall include on such return the aggregate amount contributed by employers to the Archer MSAs of such individual or such individual’s spouse for such taxable year.
(5)MSA contributions not part of COBRA coverage
Paragraph (1) shall not apply for purposes of section 4980B.
For purposes of this subsection, the terms “eligible individual” and “Archer MSA” have the respective meanings given to such terms by section 220.
For penalty on failure by employer to make comparable contributions to the Archer MSAs of comparable employees, see section 4980E.
(1) In general
Gross income of an employee shall include employer-provided coverage for qualified long-term care services (as defined in section 7702B(c)) to the extent that such coverage is provided through a flexible spending or similar arrangement.
(2) Flexible spending arrangement
For purposes of this subsection, a flexible spending arrangement is a benefit program which provides employees with coverage under which—
specified incurred expenses may be reimbursed (subject to reimbursement maximums and other reasonable conditions), and
the maximum amount of reimbursement which is reasonably available to a participant for such coverage is less than 500 percent of the value of such coverage.
In the case of an insured plan, the maximum amount reasonably available shall be determined on the basis of the underlying coverage.
(d)Contributions to health savings accounts
In the case of an employee who is an eligible individual (as defined in section 223(c)(1)), amounts contributed by such employee’s employer to any health savings account (as defined in section 223(d)) of such employee shall be treated as employer-provided coverage for medical expenses under an accident or health plan to the extent such amounts do not exceed the limitation under section 223(b) (determined without regard to this subsection) which is applicable to such employee for such taxable year.
Rules similar to the rules of paragraphs (2), (3), (4), and (5) of subsection (b) shall apply for purposes of this subsection.
For penalty on failure by employer to make comparable contributions to the health savings accounts of comparable employees, see section 4980G.
(e)FSA and HRA terminations to fund HSAs
A plan shall not fail to be treated as a health flexible spending arrangement or health reimbursement arrangement under this section or section 105 merely because such plan provides for a qualified HSA distribution.
(2)Qualified HSA distributionThe term “qualified HSA distribution” means a distribution from a health flexible spending arrangement or health reimbursement arrangement to the extent that such distribution—
does not exceed the lesser of the balance in such arrangement on September 21, 2006, or as of the date of such distribution, and
is contributed by the employer directly to the health savings account of the employee before January 1, 2012.
Such term shall not include more than 1 distribution with respect to any arrangement.
(3)Additional tax for failure to maintain high deductible health plan coverage
(A)In generalIf, at any time during the testing period, the employee is not an eligible individual, then the amount of the qualified HSA distribution—
shall be includible in the gross income of the employee for the taxable year in which occurs the first month in the testing period for which such employee is not an eligible individual, and
the tax imposed by this chapter for such taxable year on the employee shall be increased by 10 percent of the amount which is so includible.
(B)Exception for disability or death
Clauses (i) and (ii) of subparagraph (A) shall not apply if the employee ceases to be an eligible individual by reason of the death of the employee or the employee becoming disabled (within the meaning of section 72(m)(7)).
(4)Definitions and special rulesFor purposes of this subsection—
The term “testing period” means the period beginning with the month in which the qualified HSA distribution is contributed to the health savings account and ending on the last day of the 12th month following such month.
The term “eligible individual” has the meaning given such term by section 223(c)(1).
(C)Treatment as rollover contribution
A qualified HSA distribution shall be treated as a rollover contribution described in section 223(f)(5).
(5)Tax treatment relating to distributions
For purposes of this title—
A qualified HSA distribution shall be treated as a payment described in subsection (d).
(B)Comparability excise tax
Except as provided in clause (ii), section 4980G shall not apply to qualified HSA distributions.
(ii)Failure to offer to all employees
In the case of a qualified HSA distribution to any employee, the failure to offer such distribution to any eligible individual covered under a high deductible health plan of the employer shall (notwithstanding section 4980G(d)) be treated for purposes of section 4980G as a failure to meet the requirements of section 4980G(b).
(f)Reimbursements for medicine restricted to prescribed drugs and insulin
For purposes of this section and section 105, reimbursement for expenses incurred for a medicine or a drug shall be treated as a reimbursement for medical expenses only if such medicine or drug is a prescribed drug (determined without regard to whether such drug is available without a prescription) or is insulin.
(g)Qualified small employer health reimbursement arrangement
For purposes of this section and section 105, payments or reimbursements from a qualified small employer health reimbursement arrangement (as defined in section 9831(d)) of an individual for medical care (as defined in section 213(d)) shall not be treated as paid or reimbursed under employer-provided coverage for medical expenses under an accident or health plan if for the month in which such medical care is provided the individual does not have minimum essential coverage (within the meaning of section 5000A(f)).
(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 32
; Pub. L. 99–272, title X, § 10001(b), Apr. 7, 1986
, 100 Stat. 223
; Pub. L. 99–514, title XI, §§ 1114(b)(1), 1151(j)(2), Oct. 22, 1986
, 100 Stat. 2450
, 2508; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, § 1018(t)(7)(A), title III, § 3011(b)(1), Nov. 10, 1988
, 102 Stat. 3589
, 3624; Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, § 7862(c)(1)(A), Dec. 19, 1989
, 103 Stat. 2432
; Pub. L. 104–191, title III
, §§ 301(c)(1), 321(c)(2), Aug. 21, 1996
, 110 Stat. 2048
, 2058; Pub. L. 106–554
, § 1(a)(7) [title II, § 202(a)(2), (b)(2)(A), (6), (10)], Dec. 21, 2000
, 114 Stat. 2763
, 2763A–628, 2763A–629; Pub. L. 108–173, title XII
, § 1201(d)(1), Dec. 8, 2003
, 117 Stat. 2476
; Pub. L. 109–432, div. A, title III
, § 302(a), Dec. 20, 2006
, 120 Stat. 2948
; Pub. L. 111–148, title IX
, § 9003(c), Mar. 23, 2010
, 124 Stat. 854
; Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title II
, § 221(a)(17), Dec. 19, 2014
, 128 Stat. 4039
; Pub. L. 114–255, div. C, title XVIII, § 18001(a)(2), Dec. 13, 2016
, 130 Stat. 1341